Web Development

Web development is work involved with the development of dynamic web applications such as social networking, blogs etc. for the Internet or an intranet. The development process include design, scripting and security configuration to prevent from malicious SQL injection by hackers.

Web development ranges from creating simple static pages to complex web-based applications, social network applications and electronic business applications. Usually Web development refers to the non-design aspects like writing markup and coding

Content Management System

Now Web development means the creation of content management systems (CMS) like WordPress, Drupal etc. In simple, CMS became middle-ware between the database and the user through the browser. The main benefit of a CMS system is that it allows non-technical people to make changes to their web site without having technical knowledge.

With CMS come in to play Web development had a major impact online industry. Websites are no longer simply tool to work and are not adhered to e-commerce only, but serve more broadly for communication and social networking.

Web development mainly divide in to three parts – front-end development, back-end and database management.

What is Front-End Development?

Front-end web development also called client-side scripting is writing the code that get converted to graphical interface for user to view and interact with site/application through browser using HTML, CSS, JavaScript and more.

Client-side Scripting languages

Client-side scripting refers to the creation of web applications that get executed through the browser on user’s computer. Client-side scripts mainly used to store user data in cookies, display static/dynamic pages, or other forms of interactive applications.

Some of the client-side scripting languages:

Hyper Text Markup Language

HTML is standard markup language most widely used to develop web pages. HTML is a Markup Language backbone of any web application which “mark-up” a text document with tags that tell a Web browser how to display the document.

If you define web page as body html is your skeleton.

Look at below example, copy the code to notepad and save with .html extension and open file in browser.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title> Title</title> <!--Title in browser tab-->
</head>
<body>

<h1>Heading</h1> <!--your page heading-->
<p>paragraph</p> <!--your para-->

</body>
</html>
html example
HTML example
Cascading Style Sheets

CSS describe the style rules of HTML document and how the HTML tags should be displayed in browser.

If HTML is your skeleton that CSS is you flesh and skin.

Example:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
body {
    background-color: grey;
}
h1 {
    color: white;
    text-align: center;
}
p {
    font-family: TimesNewRoman;
    font-size: 20px;
}
</style>

<title> Title</title> 

</head>

<body>

<h1>Heading</h1> 
<p>paragraph</p> 

</body>

</html>
css example
CSS example
JavaScript

JavaScript is a scripting language widely used to add functionality to web pages. JavaScript is high-level, interpreted language used along with HTML and CSS.

Remember your body example! JavaScript is your organs.

Example:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>My First JavaScript</h2>

<button 
type="button" onclick="document.getElementById('example').innerHTML = Date()">
Show DATE
</button>

<p id="example">Externcode.com</p>

</body>
</html>
javascript example

And there are many like flash (getting removed) and Silverlight etc.

What is Back-End Development?

Back-end development includes writing scripts that interact with database to complete user request through browser. Back-end developers spend much of their time implementing algorithms, solving problems and mostly involved in the architecture of a system, organizing the logic of the system so that it run properly for frond-end developer.

Remember body example, this is your brain.

Languages Used in Back-End Web Development (Server-Side Scripting)

  • PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”: PHP is the most popular server-side language on the web and a open-source language powers over 2 million websites across the world. PHP is designed to access and modify database. PHP was strictly developed for the web and remains one of the most widely used languages. Easy to install and deploy, is competitive with lots of modern frameworks.
  • C#: This programming language is simple, safe and most popular framework on the web. C# gives you the best aspects of both C and C++. C# is excellent for developing Windows applications, and to build iOS, Android mobile apps with cross-platform technology like Xamarin.
  • Dart: Dart language is uniquely optimized for client-side development for web and mobile. Google build critical web apps using Dart and a good choice for programmers with limited or no JavaScript experience.
  • Python: Python language is fast, simple and the oldest of the scripting languages. Python can also be used to build server-side web applications. The language is executed in browsers such as Chrome, Firefox and Internet Explorer is JavaScript. Pyjs is a web application framework for developing client-side web and applications which can be run in a web browser or as standalone desktop applications. Most Python developers code their applications with combination of Python and JavaScript. Python is runs on the server while JavaScript run by the web browser.
  • Ruby on Rail: Ruby on Rails is a server-side web development framework mostly used on the Internet. It can perform complicated logical operations on the database of your site. Ruby is simple and complex too. Ruby on Rails framework provide us with vast bundle of libraries for back-end development.
  • ASP.NET: Active Server Pages framework is the enterprise-level framework. ASP.NET is a server side technologies enable code to be executed by an Internet server.ASP.NET is an open-source server-side web framework developed to produce dynamic web pages. When browser requests an ASP.NET file, then ASP engine reads the file, executes code and returns the result to the browser. It supports multiple programming languages for project at same simultaneously.

Database technologies used in web development

Without database a website is nothing but a page with errors. A site uses lots of database to make site run smoothly. Every website needs a database to store its code, content, images, files, user data etc.

  • MySQL is an open-source database and the most used database with PHP applications. A lots application such as Magento, WordPress, SugarCRM, and Drupal are use MySQL
  • PostGreSQL is feature rich with advanced optimization and compression attribute. Compared to MySQL, PostGreSQL is a bit slower. Most prominent applications that use PostGreSQL are PostERP and OpenBravo among others.

And some more database technologies used in web development are

  • SYBASE
  • IBM-DB2
  • Oracle Database
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • Apache
  • MongoDB
  • Cubrid
  • DB++
  • MaxDB
  • mSQL
  • SQLite
  • SQLSRV

Tools for Web Developement

In every field of profession, tools come in handy to use. Below tools are helpful in writing code or interfacing etc.

  • Text Editor: HTML, CSS and JavaScripts are mostly written using text editor like notepad, notepad++, sublime and some other IDE’s.
  • Command Line Interface: This is a method for interacting with applications and operating systems in which the developer directly enters commands and are used to perform specific tasks required by users.
  • Git: This tool is a version control system and allows developers to track site changes and coordinate with other developers. Git is a version-control system for allow developers to track changes in computer files and coordinating work among multiple people.
  • Twitter Bootstrap:Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end UI framework that decreases the time you spend on code by developing reusable code models. Mainly used for designing websites and web applications.
  • Stack Overflow: Online community that runs on a system of questions and answers.
  • Github

Overall, web development is continually emerging and using innovative languages and software to make online safe and secure for everyone.

After completing this course:

  • You will be able to apply a structured approach to identifying needs, interests, and functionality of a website.
  • Able to design dynamic websites.
  • Write, modify existing HTML, CSS and JavaScript codes.
  • Able to use JavaScript to add dynamic content to pages.
  • Able to change JavaScript code written by others, identifying both good and bad practice.
  • Able select appropriate HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code from repositories that enhances the experience of site visitors.
  • Easily examine JavaScript code following accepted good practice.
  • Able to write JavaScript code that works in all major browsers and effectively debug JavaScript code using debugging tools.
  • Able to use JavaScript libraries (e.g. JQuery) to create dynamic pages and use web services for dynamic content (AJAX, JSON, etc.).
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