Keywords in C Language

Keywords in C are predefined reserved words it means their meaning and purpose already defined in C library used to perform internal operation. Every programming language has a set of keywords with predefined values that cannot be used as variable or function names.

C has 44 keywords including C89 – 32, C99 – 5, C11 – 7. As we already know C is a case sensitive language, all keywords are in a lowercase.

But later few keywords are added which starts with an underscore and a capital letter, because identifiers of this form were previously reserved by C standard for use only by implementations.

C89 Keywords:

         auto         double       int         struct
         break        else         long        switch
         case         enum         register    typedef
         char         extern       return      union
         const        float        short       unsigned
         continue     for          signed      void
         default      goto         sizeof      volatile
         do           if           static      while

C99 Keywords:

        _Bool         _Imaginary   restrict         
        _Complex      inline

C11 Keywords:

       _Alignas        _Atomic       _Noreturn      _Thread_local
       _Alignof        _Generic      _Static_assert

Variables in C language

A Variable in C language is a place holder for data. In simple, Variable is a storage place with memory allocated to store given different type of input data. Variables of different data type requires different amounts of memory and only specific set of operations can be performed on them.

Variable Declaration and Definition:

Variable declaration informs the compiler what the variable name and type of input it will hold after definition. Most of the time, Variable declared before its use in program and memory assigned only after it is defined with value. Mostly, Variables declared and defined at same time.

Declaration include type followed by variable name and a semicolon. In multiple declaration variables separated using comma.

Definition include assigning value to variable, and variable is allocated memory only after it is defined.

Declaration syntax:

type variable_name;  //for single variable declaration
    
type V_name1, V_name2, V_name3;  //for multiple declaration

Variables Naming rules

  • Variable name should not start with a digit.
  • Special symbols are not allowed in variable name except underscore (_).
  • Allowed Capital Letters (A – Z), Small Letters (a – z), Digits (0 – 9) and underscore.
  • Blank or spaces are not allowed within variable name.
  • Keywords cannot be used as variable name.
  • C is case-sensitive hence upper and lower case names are different and it is suggested to use variable names in lower case.
#include <stdio.h>

int main ()
{

  int xyz123 = 10; //declared and defined

  int exc;  //declared and defined with garbage value
  
int _u, a, e; 
/* multiple declarations and definition with garbage value generate warning */

//int 3ar;
//uncomment above line to see effect

    printf("%d  %d %d  %d %d \n", xyz123,exc,_u,a,e);

    return 0;
}
Output:
10  8 76  4200672 4200766
Warning message:

||=== Build: Debug in ex (compiler: GNU GCC Compiler) ===|
\main.c||In function 'main':|
\main.c|11|warning: 'exc' is used uninitialized in this function [-Wuninitialized]|
\main.c|11|warning: '_u' is used uninitialized in this function [-Wuninitialized]|
\main.c|11|warning: 'a' is used uninitialized in this function [-Wuninitialized]|
\main.c|11|warning: 'e' is used uninitialized in this function [-Wuninitialized]|
||=== Build finished: 0 error(s), 4 warning(s) (0 minute(s), 0 second(s)) ===|

Types of Variables in C

Based on Variables availability in or outside block where it is declared and defined variables are classified as follows.

  1. automatic variable
  2. local variable
  3. global variable
  4. static variable

Automatic or Local Variable

By default, All the Variables declared inside the block are automatic/local variables and their availability or scope end with block. Use of keyword auto is optional here.

Local variable must be initialized before it is used.

#include<stdio.h>

int print(); 

int main () {

int i=1;           //local or automatic variable
auto int j=2;       //keyword auto optional here


printf("%d   %d",i,j);

//print();
return 0;


}

/*
int print(){
printf(“%d   %d”,i,j);
}
*/ 
Output
1 2

Remove comment (//,/*xx*/) from line numbers 13 and 19 to see that variables i & j are not accessible.

Global Variables

A variables declared outside the blocks or function which hold their values throughout the lifetime of a program after its declaration are called a global variable.

Global variable available to all functions and can be accessed by any function inside the program. Any function can change its value and mostly it is declared at the start of the program.

#include<stdio.h>

int G_varabale = 20;    //global variable

void add1(int);

int main () {

  int i=10;    //local variable
  int add;
  
add = i+G_varabale;

  printf("%d + %d = %d \n",i,G_varabale,add);

  G_varabale = 50;    //changing global variable
  printf("%d \n\n",G_varabale);

  add1(i);

return 0;

}

void add1(int i)     // ‘i’ is local to this block only
{  

printf("Global variable available here and we can change it here too \n\n");

printf("%d + %d = %d \n",i,G_varabale,i+G_varabale);


    G_varabale = 80;   //changing global variable

printf("%d \n",G_varabale);

}
Output:
10 + 20 = 30
50

Global variable available here and we can change it here too

10 + 50 = 60
80

Static Variables

Static variable holds their recent state throughout multiple function calls. Declared with keyword static these variables do not change last updated value unlike local or global.

#include<stdio.h>

void func1();

int main () {

func1();
func1();
func1();

return 0;

}

void func1(){

int i=1;//local variable
static int j=1;//static variable

i=i+1;
j=j+1;

printf("%d,%d\n",i,j);

}
Output:
2,2
2,3
2,4

Consider above example I value goes back to 2 between function calls while static hold updated value.

And there is one other important set of variables called external variable which will be explained in separate guide for better understanding.

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1 Comment

  1. In this tutorial, you will learn about keywords; reserved words in C programming that are part of the syntax. Also, you will learn about identifiers and how to name them.

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